4.c) Genetic variability

The main reason for proposing an entirely new theory of evolution is the different approach to the origin and sources of the genetic variability.

While for the Darwinian theory, the genetic variability is due to random mutations, for the Conditional Evolution of Life it is not possible only this character of the genetic variations, bearing in mind the complexity of the living beings and their quick evolution timeline.

 

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The behavior of animals is always logical because it is the product of an evolutionary strategy.

El País 02-10-2002. Congreso Nacional de Etología

These ideas about complexity in evolutionary biology appear in the objectives of the evolution section.

Current genetic regulation is something similar to modifying a computer program without knowing its structure, functions or even the program language. It is not our intention to over exaggerate the risks that may be involved in genetic engineering, they undoubtedly exist, but we believe they are minimal.

When a program is modified, it may stop working, but it is difficult to create a computer virus by accident. With random genetic variability, it could occur, the new being would not be viable, but that is all. Genetic problems designed deliberately for bacteriological war would be a different issue.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Sydney Brenner
Nobel Prize in Medicine 2002

"We know almost nothing about the human genome."

El País 18-09-2003.

Likewise, the more that we know about how DNA works, the more it looks impossible the systems are so entirely and perfect as a result of random genetic variability.

In fact, it seems that the random character of genetic variability is due to not understanding their cause and full functionality. The unknown is usually random for pure conventionalism.

 

4.c.1. Concept, origin, and sources of genetic variability

There is a problem in the terminology of evolutionary biology along with genetic variability because it usually has the meaning of the Darwin theory of evolution.

The first precision is that we are referring to the genetic information that has been or will transmit to progenitors or descendants.

GloFish - Genetically modified
Danio Rerio (Public domain image)
GloFish - Genetically modified. Danio Rerio

This restriction is crucial given that all cells contain an individual’s complete genetic code. It is possible that a genetic modification originates in a cell ➹ that does not have reproduction functions, the concept used here includes these modifications insofar as they end up moving to the reproductive system in any way possible.

Logically, current science does admit this kind of method.

Something else that needs to be clarified is the use of the expression changes in a gene or similar; it refers to expressions like modifications to genetic code or genetic information that is passed on to descendants or received from ancestors, to avoid repeating it too many times.

We will avoid this practice as far as possible but, sometimes, it simplifies the reasoning; it will even refer to genetic information that could be in different genes when this case is not relevant.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The concealed face of the genome

Nowadays it is challenging to provide a precise definition of what a gene is.
We have genes from DNA that produce proteins and the RNA genes that do not encode proteins.

The RNA molecules are pieces of a jigsaw puzzle that make up an unknown image.

El País 10-09-2003.

Usually, we see genetic information and genetic variability as something that is very complicated: DNA’s tridimensional molecular structure. Here we manage the general concept of code regardless of its chemical mechanisms.

This study of the genetic variability is functional analysis and not of its biochemical composition; therefore, in this sense, the genetic information could be like the following concepts or examples:

  • Source code of a computer program
  • Technical definitions buildings
  • Technical definitions of a car
  • User instructions of a computer program

 

 
 

4.c.2. Types of genetic variability

Let us see some of the multiples classifications of genetic modifications that could appear in evolutionary biology:

  • Genetic variations derived from the objectives of the evolutionary system
    • Improve the efficacy
      • Improvement characteristics of materials: new proteins
      • Rationalization and simplification of the structure of the genetic code.
      • Improve the functionality of any element of the genetic information.
    • Guaranty and security
      • To create different genetic variations to deal with changes in the environment.
      • Associate the idea of structural genetic information to some of it, to know the consequences of any future change or variation.
      • Keep genetic code not operative for possible future utilization
    • Cohesion and compatibility
      • Associate the condition of verification of the genetic information with the genetic information of the other progenitor in the cases of sexual differentiation.
      • Balance development of genes with complementary characters.
    • Optimization
      • To make risky modifications relying on the mechanism of natural selection.
      • To make chancy alterations counting on the use of the method of Verification of Genetic Information.
      • Genetic variations to improve the use of the resources
  • Depending on the methods of genetic evolution
    • Trial and error
    • Natural selection
    • Thorough testing
    • Partial testing
    • Initial endogenic sexual differentiation and other variants
    • Sexual differentiation
    • External verification of genetic information
    • Backup or historical archives
  • Origin or cause of genetic variability
    • Accidental or random mutations/ directed
    • Internal/external (to the individual)
      The first would be the group of improvements made to the genetic code, produced as a consequence of the individual’s learning, working or life experience previous to the transmission of genetic information.
    • Endogenous (to the genetic system) / exogenous (environmental)
  • By the nature or expression of genetic variations
    • Operative code / not operative (genetic garbage –Not a very good term)
    • Discrete / continuous
    • Restrictive (Conditions of external verification...) / additive / special
    • Variations of genes with complementary character / independents / dependents.
    • Immediate / not immediate (confirmation needed in next generations)
    • Initial moments (of the new being) / posterior
    • Visible (macroscale) / not visible (microscale)
      NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

      DNA dark matter comes to light.

      The first surprise is that the so-called “genetic garbage” has been incorrectly named: 80% of DNA turns out to have some biochemical function. Moreover, 95% of DNA affects the regulation of normal genes.

      El País 6-09-2012

  • By the mechanisms of genetic variability
    • Random / design
    • Predetermined random between fixed options / Entirely random
    • Simple / complex