4.b) Objectives of life and theory of evolution of man

Setting aside the purely philosophical position, the final aim of Life is unknown; however, we can indeed analyze some of the instrumental objectives that logically exist or should exist in general.

Besides, the progression of humankind helps us to reach a better general understanding of the evolution of life.

Without trying to be exhaustive or include all implications of the following objectives, we are going to discuss the most relevant and essential by being present not only in the evolution of man but rather in all of the vital impulse systems. Equally, we are going to make considerations that, on the one hand, support the Conditional Evolution as a whole and, on the other hand, those that express contradictions or limitations of other theories of evolution.

It is worth disclosing there is a conceptual interrelation between the discussed objectives and between the arguments and examples used; nonetheless, to facilitate its presentation and understanding, we had considered convenient to separate them into the following points.

 
 

4.b.1. Guarantee and certainty in the evolution of living beings

In the biological evolution of man and, definitely, in all types of living beings and vital impulse systems, we will find the classic concept of the supremacy of the species or the system over the individual or particular element. In other words, the continuity of the species prevails over continuity of the individual. This vital conditioning explains the strange behavior of many living beings, justified by the necessity of guaranteeing and perpetuating the species. They can even come to killing themselves to serve as food for the offspring in its initial moments.

 

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The genome of rice
Between 42,000 and 63,000 genes… surpasses any animal described until now in the number of genes.
The main reason is that close to 70% of the genes of rice are duplicated: many ancestral genes made copies of themselves, and the copy was inserted into another part of the genome.
Initially, those two copies of the same gene are a mere redundancy, but later they can gradually deviate, and one of them can acquire slightly different functions.

El País 25-04-2002.

 

In genetics, the total certainty of the viability of incorporated modifications to the genome is not always necessary. Sometimes it will be sufficient with a high degree of probability; however, if genetic variation affects one of the complex and vital functions of the new being, it would be interesting to be able to attain total certainty.

DNA strand, genes, and chromosomes (Public domain image)
DNA strand, genes, and chromosomes.

A solution would be to simulate system operation under the new parameters and relations before incorporating them in the genetic information to transmit, this way avoiding any incidental variation that may cause an error.

However, the simulation method has a limitation; in very complex functions, it is not possible to simulate all possibilities, given that these can be almost infinite. It is essential to have other methods that allow maximum assurance of the viability of the new being; after all the accumulated work that represents the existence of an advanced living creature, all guarantees seem small.

An example would be the biological evolution of man.

The guarantee or certainty objective is a fundamental novelty of the Conditional Evolution because it represents an advantage of the sexual differentiation in reproduction, giving a compelling reason to its existence.

In the biological evolution of man and any living being, having two sources of genetic information when it comes to developing the offsprings poses us in the section improvement of efficiency the problem of deciding which source to use in each case.

The need for guarantee offers a coherent explanation. The viability of the new being with genetic modifications will ensue if there is a backup copy of the genome in case of failure of the innovative changes.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

As the scientists from the Centre for Demographic and Population Genetics in the University of Texas (USA) have explained: “Men suffer more genetic mutations because they produce more sperm than women produce ova.”

El País 12-05-1993. Nature

Therefore, a chief function of sexual differentiation could be one of the sexes providing an intact copy of its genetic packet. It is interesting in many species the female ova forms in the relatively initial moments of the individuals' development. On the contrary, it does not occur in males.

Once again, the most well-known clear example is the evolution of man.

In similar processes, even much modest than those of man, like the development of a sophisticated computer program, there are always backup copies in case the changes do not manage to obtain the anticipated result. Sexual differentiation in the case of superior animals could be a little bit similar to those computer programs developed by multiple programmers.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The rate of masculine mutation is twice the rate of female variation, which indicates that the men are the cause of the majority of the hereditary diseases, but they contribute more to the evolutionary progress in this sense.

El País 19-02-2001. Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

It is possible there is a full, or an almost entire, backup copy of the genome mentioned in the previous paragraph. Nevertheless, it is not strictly necessary for the Conditional Evolution proposals because, initially, nothing prevents a genetic modification to be incorporated maintaining, at the same time, the previous code. However, in highly related functions probably it does not exist much flexibility in the development of the new living being.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Plants contradict the laws of Mendel. Some genetically defective plants in both lines, they have, however, some healthy descendants, as though an unknown mechanism, based on a mysterious backup copy, had recuperated the correct sequence in its genes. Spectacular, marvelous, strange, unexpected are some of the descriptions for this discovery.
…A scientist believes that the mechanism can also occur in people.
…The experts think that there is a backup copy of RNA for all of the genomes.
The discovery presents a puzzle for the evolutionary theory.

El País 30-03-2005. Nature

Undoubtedly, the technical and scientific progress of biology and genetics will have the last words on guarantee and certainty subject concerning the evolution of living beings; although, there will be two methods or more, keeping in mind the enormous casuistry present.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

The genes of animals are, on average, larger and more complicated than those of plants. Each gene can correct itself in various ways…, and the evolution –in its most subtle aspects– seems to have played more with the alteration of those corrections –splicing– than with the duplication of whole genes.

El País 05-04-2002.