...4.b.1.

Sexual differentiation and VGI method

Another characteristic of sexual differentiation, complementary and much more powerful than the previous one, allows Nature to decide in each case which of the two genetic sources it should use; in other words, how to take maximum advantage of the existence of the second source of genetic information with the sexual differentiation.

Indeed, sexual differentiation offers the existence of two different sources of genetic information. The fundamental advantage is that VIG method verifies the genetic information when is essential to avoid errors. The verification takes place, even in human evolution, by comparing or filtering the two sources.

In the theory of evolution, the central aspect is not the particular mechanism Nature uses to carry out the analysis and comparison of the genetic variation of the two genetic sources with sexual differentiation,but the method, which we denominate VGI method –Verification of the Genetic Information.

Let us see some examples to show the advantages of sexual differentiation:

  • Computer spaceships

    Errors in spaceships or other expensive machines can suppose a high material and personal cost; therefore, we would seek the certainty, as far as possible, that no crucial error will take place.

    If, when doing the complicated computer calculations, we used three identical computers, we would be able to verify the results of the operations and be sure they are correct. In the improbable, although possible case, that one of them failed, we could assume well enough the result of the other two, because it would be much more improbable that two computers failed simultaneously and with identical deviation.

    We have just made verification of the information between three different sources; however, nature only has two sexes ➹ available for the moment.

  • Complex calculations

    An example of two sources of intelligence could be asking two people the result of a relatively complicated calculation or an exact date of an event. If the two people give the same answer, we could be almost sure that both have given the correct answer; because, although can be relatively easy to be mistaken in a difficult question, to commit precisely the same error is not probable. Of course, in those cases of inconsistency, some alternative must be available to choose a particular answer.

  • Neural networks

    Before, we have commented sexual differentiation, as in human evolution, has only two sexes when we put the example of the three computers. Now we are going to suppose that some Nature functions in humans use two billion little computers or neurons, half of which designed with the genetic information of an ancestor and the other half with genetic load of the other ancestor.

    NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

    The mysterious behavior of the X chromosome

    In some brains, for example, the X chromosome of the mother predominated in the left hemisphere and the correspondent of the father in the right one. In some mice, one eye was dominated by the father and another by the mother. The diversity extended to the entire mouse.

    El País 06-12-2014

    Within this configuration, it is possible to apply the method of Verification of the Genetic Information and to work without its application. For example, a human cognitive process could decide on the bases of the first hundred thousand answers. It would not be impossible that a cerebral operation on some occasions responds to the design of our example of human evolution.

    This last example presents numerous advantages concerning the simple selection of one or another inherited genetic code. First, it allows us to take advantage of the two sets of genetic information. Secondly, the same group of cells, we say cells for expositive clarity, serve for different cognitive functions, even cognitive tasks of diverse nature.

    It is like if the operability of genetic information of both ancestors could change depending on the different filters or conditions applied and, at the same time, keep the whole potential.

The mechanism to carry out the method of Verification of the Genetic Information (VGI) of sexual differentiation can be as simple as to verify if both genes or functional genetic code produce the same protein or not. However, it will not always be possible to maintain this compatibility, if the VGI method is carried out in one of the new being’s initial processes, it is possible that, once an organ or group of cells develop with specific characteristics, the option of maintaining different features disappears.

Thus, sexual differentiation seems a necessity of Nature when arriving at a certain degree of complexity of the development of living beings.

Admitted the importance of method VGI and sexual differentiation, it is not too surprising the relevance of the conscious or unconscious mechanisms in sexual selection.

Insofar as possible, the method of Verification of Genetic Information will work maintaining the compatibility of different filters or conditions on cognitive processes and, consequently, the maximum potential of the two genetic sources. Firstly, it will be easier to preserve adequate flexibility in characteristics associated with continuous variables than discrete ones. What we identify as one characteristic will often be a group of somewhat multifaceted attributes due to the different scales in which we move, macroscopic and microscopic.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

In any combination, each parent passes on only half of his or her genes to their daughter whose olfactory preferences are defined exclusively by the combination of genes that the father has passed on.

The other half that the father has, but the daughter does not, is irrelevant. And the mother’s genes also…

El País 23-01-2002. Nature Genetics

For example, the height of a building, a continuous variable, depends on many factors such as the depth and surface of the cement, the type of terrain, quality of the different materials employed, etc.

Now, let show more examples to fully understand the VGI method and the advantages of sexual differentiation.

Relational intelligence Genetic information
Diagram of relational intelligence
  • Relational intelligence

    Another example is intelligence that is, without doubt, composed of multiple cognitive sub-functions. To avoid unnecessary controversies, we understand intelligence as the ability to respond correctly to IQ test, resulting in a continuous variable with a normal distribution of 100 as average and standard deviation that changes according to the particular analysis taken.

    The diagram shows the intellectual potential associated with two genes; we use the term gene for simplicity; however, it could easily refer to several pieces of genetic code situated in different places.

    The genetic code of progenitor A has a potential of 105 and B of 130, both having common cognitive functions of 90.

    If formal logic were a characteristic for which nature applies the VGI method, the potential of the descendant would be 90, while if it were not operative, it would be 145. As one can see, these calculi are equivalents to those of the Set theory as regards math intersection and addition.

  • Automobile brakes

    This example is fully explained in the Web page about dominant and recessive genes within sexual differentiation while talking about the evolution of cars.

  • Math example with letters

    The genetic code of a progenitor has the human cognitive functions: {a, b, c, d, e}

    With sexual differentiation, if the method of Verification of Genetic Information is applied and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a, b, c}, the descendant will have the potential corresponding to cognitive functions {a, b, c}. If VGI method were not applied would have the potential {a, b, c, d, e}

    Nevertheless, if VGI method operates and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a, f, g, h} the descendant will have the potential corresponding solely to the function {a}. On the opposite case, if VGI method were not operative would have {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}

     

     
  • Mendelian genetics

    To simplify, in the following diagram of Mendelian genetics and sexual differentiation we will assume that the genetic code of greater potential always includes a 100% of the potential associated with the other genetic code. We have also eliminated evolution, strictly speaking, that would transmit improved genes to descendants.

    Method of Verification
    of Genetic Information (VGI)
    Method of Verification of Genetic Information (VGI)

    The column to the left shows the potential of the two progenitors associated with the genetic codes represented in the next column; the upper part with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method, and the lower without the implementation of this method.

    By our definitions, the useful potential of the progenitors is equal to their genetic code with lesser value when using the VGI method, and to the genetic code with the higher value when it is not operative.

    The third column graphically represents the four possible combinations of the progenitor's genes by Gregor Mendel's law.

    Lastly, in the column to the right are the potentials associated with the descendant's genes. The upper part is with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method, and the lower with the opposite case.

It is worth pointing out that we are analyzing a specific method of evolution within sexual differentiation and we are not trying to generalize it at any time, although it could be widespread. Likewise, indicating that whether the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied or not, genetic codes transmitted to descendants will have the same value, given that the VGI method refers to the worth of individuals and not of the genetic code.

We can deduce the following consequences of the Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation from the study of the previous diagram:

  • The inherited potential relates to the progenitors' two genes, without either of them acting as dominant or recessive genes as in Mendelian genetics. The behavior will be somewhat different of the Mendelian significance and will depend on the potential of the paired gene; the smaller gene will be significant when the VGI method is applied.

    This behavior will be relevant to the extent that the more significant gene includes the gene with less potential. In other words, the intersection we saw in the figure of the math’s Set theory would be the genuinely useful part; we can observe these roles when applying the VGI method for gene B of progenitor one given that is not the significant gene of descendant three, but descendant 4.

  • In some instances, the genetic potential fully maintains, depending on the operability of the specific functions that are carried out.

  • When the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied:

    • There is a 50% probability that the descendants' potential will be the same as the lesser of the progenitor's potentials.

    • The maximum potential will be that of the second most potent gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the most robust gene; in this case, the maximum potential referred to will be equal to the second less powerful gene.

  • When the VGI method is not applied:
    • Descendants' potential has a 50% probability of being equal to that of the progenitor with the higher potential.

    • Minimum potential will be of the second less potent gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the least powerful gene of all; in this case, minimum potential referred to will be equal to the second most potent gene.

These consequences about Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation may allow us to empirically check the real existence of this evolutionary method, and indirectly its supporting theory through the corresponding statistical analysis of specific cases of sexual differentiation in which Nature does or does not apply the VGI method.

We believe it uses VGI method for the characteristics measured by an IQ test and for what we call math memory, a memory with almost absolute reliability.

Keeping in mind that, as we have seen, for intelligence, Nature constructs organs according to both genetic sources, and in the case of not requiring certainty of responses –the opposite of intelligence in the strict sense of the word–, we would find ourselves with intuition. As we know, the hunch is more potent than cleverness and less reliable, and it will depend on the quantitative difference between the two genetic codes; more precisely, of the difference between the intersection and the addition of the potential of both genetic sources.

For linguistic memory and musical abilities, we think VGI method is not applied; these could, however, be used for empirical verification if we had appropriate indicators.

Finally, it is convenient to mention here that the EDI Study on evolution and design of intelligence with sexual differentiation empirically confirms the existence of Verification of the Genetic Information method and an additional hypothesis relating sexual selection.