4.b.3. Internal coherence and compatibility: evolution of the species

  • Isomorphism in evolution of the species

    The first indication of compatibility of the genetic system in the origin and evolution of the species gives us the fact of the uniformity in its language: the DNA. The typical case is the human genome. Therefore, it is interesting to think the comments apply almost without exception to the human genome, helping us to understand the expressed ideas.


    A year after the official presentation of the rough sketch of the human genome...
    In the human genome are also many proteins related to the defense system of the organism and, especially, a high number of repeated sequences and without a known function that makes up 50% of the total (the genes would only represent 1.5%)...

    El País 20-02-2002.

    Any modification or improvement in the evolution of the species has to be compatible with the rest of the transmitted genome. There should be a set of genes or genetic code of the genotype remarkably constant for affecting a lot of vital processes. We can call it structural code.

    The existence of random genetic variability or random mutations in the evolution of the species would mean that they would affect the structural code. The consequences would be disastrous for the development of the new being; logically, the genetic modifications generally cannot be random, especially in extremely complicated cases of the evolution of the species, such as that of the human genome.

    The random method in the evolution of the species is always admissible when the random mutations can only happen within specific processes and mechanisms; that is, nature is extending the range of possibilities but without affecting those functions that require uniformity and coherence.

    The existence in the evolution of the species of uncontrolled random mutations in the genome should lead to the existence of spiders with four, six or more than eight legs; moreover, they should be born more or less continuously over time. It should be regular to find animals of the same species with a different number of legs and humans with three arms. Modern genetics is indeed acquiring this type of mutations in inferior animals.

    The coherence of the modifications also relates the genetic information that the other parent could transmit. Sexual differentiation allows –apart from other numerous considerations– a method for achieving the necessary uniformity and coherence between the two sources of genetic information. We are referring to the Verification of Genetic Information method –VGI method.  Observed isomorphism in the evolution of the species, especially of the most complex, like the human genome represents a typical example.

  • Evolutionary leap and the origin of new species

    An aspect related to coherence is the regular existence of evolutionary leaps, in the origin of new species, which will imply a change of the structural code of the genotype. In other words, we are looking for a model to justify the existence of the human genome.

    When a system evolves, it complicates and, at the same time, certain traits make up its structure while many others are depending on them. Eventually, this structure of the genotype becomes ancient and there comes a time when it is necessary to change some elements of the structure to allow the simplification of intricate processes and increase the evolutionary potential of the species.

    Within the evolution of the species, new functions will not operate the Verification of Genetic Information method. A simulation method or other condition of control should check or verify the new function. One solution to assure the continuation of the species could be incorporating the modification to a certain proportion of the descendants.

    The fast evolution of the species that will follow a structural change will produce traits related to and dependent on the new functions; for example, the necessity of a particular protein. If by way of the combination of genes, a new being does not acquire this new function, it will not survive, given that the dependent traits will remain blocked in the phenotype.

    The species will be compatible * during a specific period while distancing between themselves, but evolution will make them irreconcilable for reproductive purposes, causing their complete separation and the origin of new species.

    The sporadic diseases, one case out of every 10,000 or 100,000, could respond to this argument since usually, they are due to the lack of a protein in the phenotype –organism– by two very archaic genes together. These genes are reminiscent of the past because no individuals with the new structure and those genes from both parents have been viable.


    "The responsible gene of a protein called growth factor 2, similar to the insulin (IGF2), is usually marked in people...

    The imprinted IGF2 from the mother is typically not active in the child, but when it loses that marking and is activated it produces a form of cancer in infants called Wilm’s tumor...

    It is a radical concept in genetics... Because until now, we did not know cancers caused by normal genes.

    El País 26-04-1993. Nature

    Of course, as always, it can sound like natural selection because any mechanism impeding the viability of a being could be part of the natural selection, but it would be nothing more than an abuse of the concept in its purest tautological form.

  • Complementary traits and the origin of the species

    Conditions of active development of the modified trait could be set up according to the existence of other related traits to extend the field of possible improvements in the evolution of the species.

    The balance of complementary traits also concerns to coherence and could cause an evolutionary leap implying the origin of a new species.

    When two traits are entirely complementary, their balance is beneficial given that the resulting potential will be higher. The figure shows the effect of the complementarity factor on the potential of a particular characteristic in the evolution of the species. The resulting potential should be superior to the simple addition of the potential of the traits considered separately. In the graphic, the example assumes the resulting potential is the product of the individuals’ potential.

    If we think about the complementarity of intelligence and memory, we could accept that each additional unit –a typical example can be human genome– of intelligence will increase the total potential not in a unit but rather in the quantity of the total memory.

    A familiar analogy in the trunk of a car: when going on a long trip and with many pieces of junk, one should pay special attention to fit them all. Obviously, the greater ability we have and the bigger the trunk, the more things that can fit inside.

    In assessing the effect for greater clarity, the ability passes from three to four objects by a unit of volume, and the volume of four to six units. Then, we can see that the ability has increased one unit, the volume two units and the number of objects twelve by the effect of complementarity.

    This effect is of extreme importance since in the figure it is shown how the maximum difference of potential of every trait isolated has the relationship 9 / 3 = 3 and, when we look at the global potential, the relationship transforms to 81/9 = 9, it has tripled.

    Complementarity of abilities in the phenotype
    Complementary traits

    We can imagine the enormous differences that can occur in potentials associated with multifunctional concepts, like intelligence and memory. Only with the introduction of another trait or function the individual relationship of 3 could go for the global potential to 729 / 27 = 27.

    Now, we can imagine that three different ape species live in a relatively close habitat. One of them lives mainly in the trees, another one on the ground and another in a zone with an abundance of food during an extended period, so this last species dedicates more time than usual to the contemplative life. If the three species genetically mix * through their more extremely gifted individuals, it is easy to imagine that the descendants could acquire traits immensely superior to their ancestors, and the subsequent mechanisms will end up separating the new species.

    The only problem for the baby of the new species * will be to find its missing link because it has never existed. *