4. GENETICS AND EVOLUTION

4.a) Evolutionary genetics

We present here new ideas about the theory of evolution and the origin of life concerning evolutionary genetics and its consequences on the evolution of the species.

This title IV of the Conditional Evolution has four main sections. Firstly, a brief description of genetics and evolution.

Secondly, the objectives of life which contain the fundamental argument of the logic of why and how the development of living beings is carried out.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Scientific progress and society.

These biological systems are the result of more than a billion years of evolutionary discoveries, rejections, trials, successes and perfection, in which many of which has worked well in each stage has been incorporated.

El País 26-11-1992. Eric H. Davidson.

In the majority of the superior evolutionary processes, inevitably, there are genetic changes produced simultaneously by the influence of the environment, random mechanisms, and methods of trial and error; some changes will be already verified, and sexual differentiation and sexual and natural selection will be present.

The next two sections refer to the creation of primary and accurate terminology concerning genetics and the theory of evolution and to cite some examples that may help us to familiarize and quickly identify the terms employed.

It is worth pointing out that our purpose in talking about the theory of evolution is not to explain modern biology or genetic engineering in technical aspects or terms like types of molecules, proteins, their three-dimensional forms, specific biological functions, molecular processes of chemical nature or new genetic mechanisms.

Protein HNF1a and DNA (Public domain image)
Protein HNF1a and DNA

On the contrary, we will focus on what nature does, or we reason that it has to do in the conceptual context of genetics or evolution and not chemical. In other words, in methods that it uses, operations where they are carried out and the specific mechanisms.

There are biochemical mechanisms that give place to random processes in nature, for us, this is relevant to the theory of evolution;that is, its functional character and not the molecular game in which lies a specific mechanism, which would be more typical of a course in chemistry, molecular biology or genetic engineering. The contrary criterion could also be adopted, but it would unnecessarily complicate an already intricate subject.

The chief virtue of this approach to evolutionary genetics is allowing any person with common culture to follow the argument without more problems than those derived from its reasoning. This reasoning, in turn, is not complicated in itself, but due to the number of accuracies and nuances that it must carry out to delimit the "cases" object of analysis, it could become incredibly complex. In these cases, we would recommend a slow or double reading. Of course, do not forget, the explanation could be deficient.

Therefore, we try to avoid very technical aspects and terms of evolutionary genetics by introducing numerous examples and, where possible, referring to familiar concepts and processes.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION

Furthermore, the study has found numerous sequences devoid of known function –they do not run the production of protein– which are present in all of the species studied, which indicates that they have been preserved throughout the evolution and strongly suggests that they have some biological function.

El País 14-08-2003. Nature

Perhaps the main inconvenient of this presentation is that, by including ideas with intuitive content, the logical reasoning loses precision by the very definition of intuition.

Consequently, one should not look for the total comprehension of the presented elucidations; instead, one should try to understand the reasoning allowing the new proposals, thinking that some of them may not be correct, but could be very close to reality.

Keep in mind that, now, the knowledge of the mechanisms of evolutionary genetics is insufficient and reduced to isolated points in comparison to its actual magnitude in the theory of evolution.