4.a) Evolutionary genetics

In this title, we present the new ideas about the theory of evolution and the origin of life with special reference to the evolutionary genetics and its consequences on evolution of the species. 

This title IV of the Conditional Evolution has been divided into four main points. Firstly, this brief description about genetics and evolution; secondly, there is the point related to the objectives of life which contain the fundamental argument of the logical nature of why and how evolution of living beings is developed. 


Scientific progress and society

...These biological systems are the result of more than a billion years of evolutionary discoveries, rejections, trials, successes and perfection, in which many of that which has worked well in each stage has been incorporated…

El País 26-11-1992. Eric H. Davidson.

In the majority of the superior evolutionary processes, surely, there are genetic changes produced simultaneously by the influence of the environment, random processes and processes of trial and error will already verify some verified, and there will be influence from sexual differentiation and natural and sexual selection will be present.

The next two points refer to creating accurate terminology that is considered necessary in the theory of evolution and classical genetics, and to cite some examples that may help us to familiarize ourselves and to easily identify the use that we give to the terms utilized.

It is worth pointing out that my purpose in talking about the theory of evolution is not to explain modern biology or genetic engineering in technical aspects or terms like: types of molecules, proteins, their three-dimensional forms, specific biological functions, molecular processes of chemical nature, genetic mechanisms that are discovered but their functional nature, etc., is not very well-known.

Protein HNF1a and DNA (Public domain image)
Protein HNF1a and DNA

On the contrary, I will focus on what nature does or I think that it has to do, in the general processes and methods that it surely uses, the processes where they are carried out and the specific mechanisms, in the conceptual context of genetics or evolution and not chemical.

Let’s look at an example; there are biochemical mechanisms that give place to random processes in nature, for me, this is what is relevant in the theory of evolution; that is, its functional nature and not the molecular game in which lies a specific mechanism, which would be more typical of a course in chemistry, molecular biology or genetic engineering. The contrary criterion could also be adopted, but I think that it would unnecessarily complicate an already complex subject matter.

The main virtue of this approach to evolutionary genetics and the theory of evolution is allowing any person of average culture to follow the argument without any more problems than those derived from its reasoning. This reasoning, in turn, is not complicated in itself, but due to the number of accuracies and nuances that it must carry out to delimit the "cases" object of analysis, it could become extremely complex. In these cases, I would recommend a slow or double reading.

This is the reason for avoiding very technical aspects and terms of evolutionary genetics by introducing numerous examples and, in what is possible, by making reference to well-known concepts and processes.


...Furthermore, the study has found numerous sequences devoid of known function (they do not run the production of protein) that are present in all of the species studied, which indicates that they have been preserved throughout the evolution and strongly suggests that they have some biological function...

El País 14-08-2003. Nature

Perhaps the main inconvenient of this presentation is that, by including ideas with certain intuitive content, the logical reasoning cannot be perfect by the very definition of intuition.

Consequently, one should not look for the total comprehension of the presented explanations; instead, one should try to understand the reasoning allowing the new proposals, thinking that some of them may not be correct, but that could be very close to reality.

Keep in mind that, now, the knowledge of the mechanisms of evolutionary genetics is very limited and reduced to isolated points, in comparison to its actual magnitude in the theory of evolution.