4.b) Gravitational phenomena

4.b.1. Characteristics of longitudinal and gravitational waves

The existence of gravitational waves * –intuitively known by Newton, studied by Laplace and foreseen by Einstein’s General Relativity– is a fascinating subject, since they bring us closer to understanding gravity nature.

Within a non-academic point of view, regarding gravitational waves, we should bear in mind there are various meanings of the expression gravitational waves, and those detected by LIGO experiment are not the cause of gravity force. From another perspective, they are not produced by accelerating mass but by violent merging bodies. Finally, because of the drag effect they produce, they are most probably related to the so-called expansion of the Universe and dark energy.

One thing is the transmission of gravity itself, and another is the gravitational waves described by General Relativity; these two concepts are not the same in Global Physics.

Let us look at both concepts separately.

  1. Gravitational waves in General Relativity

    These waves could refer to displacements of the reticular structure of matter –global, kinetic or gravitational ether–, which supports gravity, kinetic energy and mass. These displacements could themselves relate partly to dark energy and the expansion of the Universe as mentioned in the book Global Astrophysics and Cosmology.

    However, due to nebulous concept of gravity in General Relativity, it calls gravitational waves both variations in gravitational field intensity, and space-time distortions. To avoid misunderstandings, gravity relativistic concept is space-time distortions, whatever effects it may produce.

    The future LISA experiment –Laser Interferometer Space Antenna– will attempt to detect relativistic gravitational waves. It is an experiment similar to the one carried out by Michelson and Morley, but in outer space. Nevertheless, as we explain in the book Global Physics Experiments, we think it will show a different behavior of light than in the Michelson-Morley experiment. This would mean, more or less, the end of the General Relativity.

    On the other hand, LIGO experiment –Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory– has finally detected gravitational waves. LIGO has the same objectives as LISA, but it is a ground experiment, carried out on Earth. As such, it does not contradict General Relativity.

    The detection of relativistic gravitational waves from their effect on electromagnetic waves is curious because in General Relativity there is no ether unless one considers space-time itself to be an ether with mechanical properties.

    Another exciting aspect of gravitational waves relates to the origin of the universe.

    • The Big Bang Theory and expansion of the universe

      Scientists have known the acceleration of the rate of expansion of the universe for some time; from calculations based on the luminosity of supernovae, this value should be between 67 and 72 km/s per megaparsec.

      The detection of the gravitational waves produced by the merger of two neutron stars –GW170817– has allowed scientists to fix at 70 km/s per megaparsec * the value of the increase in speed of the expansion of the universe in the 130 million light years that separate us from the origin of said merger. The article linked above implies accuracy would improve with more observations.

      As these calculations approach the speed of light throughout the age of the universe, we can do the inverse calculation to determine the average increase in the velocity of expansion so that the observable universe is of the age stated by the Big Bang Theory.

      The result is 300.000 km/s /(13.799/3,26) Mpc =70.8205371797101 km/s Mpc and this calculation does not add any uncertainty besides the one obtained when determining the age of the universe.

      In other words, it seems that what fixes the supposed age of the universe is its visibility, regardless of any initial explosion. Therefore, the Big Bang Theory could be incorrect or at least lose one of its main supports.

      In any case, these considerations are very superficial because it would be quite complicated to draw the universe with just a few points without knowing, for instance, whether it is flat or spherical.

  2. Gravity-generating waves

    Concept of waves is broad and there are several classifications. Wikipedia’s page about physical waves is quite good and includes animated images.

    Usually, when talking about gravitational waves as the origin of the gravity force –transmission of the tension in the longitudinal curvature of gravitational ether filaments in Global Physics– no one mentions which characteristics should have said waves, apart from transmitting or bearing the elastic potential energy of the virtual gravitational field.

    The most intriguing aspect to us is the speed of gravitational waves. However, first let us see their characteristics about following criteria.

    • Waves requiring or not a medium

      According to Global Physics, every single wave needs a medium. Otherwise, they would be abstract or magical waves. Here we must quote Newton, as he disliked forces at distance.

      Wikipedia differentiate between mechanical waves, such as sound waves, electromagnetic waves or those of transmission of so-called fields –assumed immaterial– and gravitational waves, which would represent the transmission of distortions in space itself.

      It appears that Modern Physics, in addition to using phantom light waves, confuses changes in size and tension of the reticules of the gravitational ether with changes in space itself. It then uses time variations to fit with the model with observations of the physical reality, before turning, of course, to singularities and uncertainties as a last resort.

    • Periodic and non-periodic waves

      Gravitational waves should be periodic, since tension of gravitational ether is is usually the same –unlike light waves, which appear in a non-periodic way. The type of waves, which are non-periodic, is pulses.

      The elastic energy of the gravitational or global ether needs a constant vibration due to concept of elasticity itself; a body at absolute rest could not have any internal energy.

    • Stationary and propagating waves

      Gravitational waves will be stationary waves, since force of gravity would exist in a static field of gravity.

      The propagation of changes in tension of the longitudinal curvature should take place due to the vibration or resonance of stationary waves of gravitational ether.

    • Longitudinal and transverse waves

      Longitudinal tension of the reticular structure of matter should be kept with longitudinal spring-like waves or as two-dimensional waves; but not as torsion ones, such as the electromagnetic waves.

      Nodes of longitudinal or two-dimensional waves could match the vertexes of the gravitational ether’s grids.

      Actually, the idea we want to illustrate is that both propagating waves of gravitational field intensity and electromagnetic waves propagate at the speed of the vibration or resonance of the gravitational ether’s stationary longitudinal waves.

    • One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional waves

      This concept on the dimensions of a wave is quite clear, however, we would say that a group of waves is often mistaken for a unique one because they coincide.

    Let us look now at the speed of gravitational waves as transmission of tension of the longitudinal curvature due to changes in spatial location of mass that causes it.

    Neutron star merger GW170817NASA - (Public domain image)
    NASA-Pphenomena observed over the course of nine days following the neutron star merger known as GW170817

    This aspect about gravitational interaction was challenging; there was little and unclear information available. Just bear in mind that Modern Physics denies existence of the gravitational ether or any type of ether with mechanical properties. This last claim is nothing but a euphemism of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.

    Vibration speed of the gravitational ether as longitudinal waves relates to point “Magnetic wave propagation and constant speed of light” included in section Properties of light waves and photons and electromagnetic interaction of the book Global Mechanics.

    Resonance of mass is a different issue, since it increases with motion and with the gravitational ether’s longitudinal tension, as discussed in section Physics and movement in gravity of the book Physics and Global Dynamics, it can vary from *c* so as to almost

    Before, there were two possibilities regarding the speed of gravitational waves as transmission of the tension of the longitudinal curvature responsible for the force of gravity. However, nowadays it seems clear that both gravitational waves and electromagnetic energy have the same speed.

    The fact that the velocity of gravitational waves and light is the same should be a consequence of some physical characteristic of the medium through which both travel. Otherwise, this would be a tremendous virtual coincidence.

    Arguments would be:

    • Speed c² or a figure of a similar order

      Laplace stated in 1825 that gravitational waves propagation speed should be at least 108 c due to difference between direction of the Earth’s centripetal acceleration towards the Sun and direction of the light coming from the Sun to the Earth.

      Now, let see where the Earth’s centripetal acceleration points at due to the effect of the Sun’s gravitational force. As we already know that it takes 8.3 minutes for the light to reach the Earth from the Sun. The direction of light points at the sun’s location 8.3 minutes before, there should be an adjustment because of light dragging, which, however, will be a small one since mentioned drag decreases rapidly with distance.

      Thanks to the astronomical observations made, it is known that the Earth’s centripetal acceleration vector points 20 arc seconds at the direction of motion of the Sun regarding the one of Light; in other words, it points at the correct spatial location of the Sun in that precise moment.

      Other studies with solar eclipse due to the Moon and with binary pulsars provide similar minimum quantities.

    • The speed of gravity longitudinal waves is equal to the speed of light

      One might think that the centripetal force over the Earth points faithfully to the Sun is not because of gravitational waves speed, but because gravitational forces are additive. In the context in which the Sun has a galactic translational movement, the Earth’s motion is due both to the Sun’s gravitational force and to the force of gravity responsible for said Sun’s motion, which will affect the Earth in exactly the same way.

      In other words, if we take out the gravitational force on both the Sun and the Earth, the result will be a static Sun. Therefore, there would be no need to imagine the speed of any gravitational wave, since gravity force will not vary because we are only considering the variation in the Sun’s gravitational force, which is null.

      Global Law of Gravity’s argumentation about the atractis causa, regarding that gravitational force affects light twice than mass according Newton’s gravity, is consistent with the similar transmission speed of gravity and light.

      Scientists from the Missouri-Columbia University have claimed, in 2003, that they have measured the speed of gravity within a margin of error of 20% and they maintain it is equal to electromagnetic waves speed.

      Finally, gravitational waves detected by LIGO experiment have the same speed as light.