1.d) Astronomy and other phenomena in outer space

As well as processes of contraction and expansion of space of previous sections, other physical phenomena have considerable repercussions on the structure of the Universe.

There are two phenomena not discussed up until now. These are the similar velocities in general of the stars in galaxies and some effects of gravitational lensing that the existence of a large quantity of mass could explain them, but this mass persists without detection.

Consequently, to explain both cases, scientists consider the possible existence of dark matter.

In this case, the model of Global Astrophysics –part of the Global Physics– attempts to contribute new ideas to explain dark matter in the Universe and strange behavior of stars in rotation of the galaxies.

We must keep in mind that Astrophysics is a very imaginative science; not only in its interpretations of specific observations but also because of limitations of observations.

What’s more, Modern Astrophysics remains stuck in its metaphysical doubts and questions; on the one hand, its central theory is Einstein’s General Relativity; but on the other, it seems evident “vacuum” is not empty, and that it has mechanical properties. In other words, 95% of the mass / energy of the universe have no explanation.

In addition to gravitational lensing effect without mass, and to the problem of rotation of the stars in galaxies, we are going to discuss the topic of antimatter, related to dark matter and the theories of the origin of the universe.

We need to remark that section 1.d.3. Rotation of the galaxies includes a quantitative analysis with experimental data and very satisfactory results.

Furthermore, as a novel consequence of second element of the atractis causa –Merlin effect– in the Global Gravity Law, we will study possible additional eccentricity of planetary orbits concerning classical and relativistic orbits.



1.d.1. Antimatter

Throughout this book, we have mentioned on numerous occasions there are two types of electromagnetic energy and physical mass, depending on the transversal rotation they possess.

In a three-dimensional Euclidean space –advocated by Global Physics–, there can only be two types of rotation in the direction of propagation of a transversal wave. Consequently, electromagnetic energy can only be right-handed or left-handed.

Cohete de antimateria
NASA (Public domain image)
NASA-Cohete de antimateria

Similarly, given definition of physical mass in Global Mechanics, there will be two types of mass –matter and antimatter– formed by a confluence of right-handed and left-handed electromagnetic energy, respectively. Thus, regular mass in our galaxy configures matter and antimatter will have different transversal torsion.

As would be expected, the lifetime of antimatter on our planet is very short; it is very unstable because opposite electromagnetic tension is all over around.

Maintaining particles of antimatter is a very costly process, as they need powerful electromagnetic fields of correct transversal torsion. Theoretically, a proton of antimatter, if adequately isolated from normal matter, should be just as stable as a standard proton.

Again, the whole description of antimatter fits perfectly with the concept of mass in Global Mechanics.


"Antimatter of anti-galaxies from a spaceship

Half the faraway galaxies could be of antimatter, an analogous substance to matter, which annihilates when it in contact with it. In theory, the existence of antigalaxies –groups of antistars and antiplanets– is possible and they could be visually indistinguishable from normal galaxies, such as the Milky Way.”

El País 24-05-1995

In a hypothetical initial situation of the Universe without any electromagnetic torsion or any matter or antimatter, any rotation or torsion of the reticular structure of matter –global, gravitational or kinetic aether– will produce right-handed electromagnetic waves in one sense and left-handed waves in opposite sense in the same direction.

Just as magnetic monopoles do not exist, due to the mechanisms that create mass and to Law of Large Numbers, there should be an equal quantity of antimatter and normal matter –matter visible to us– in the Universe.

Recently, there has been talking about the possible existence of magnetic monopoles; however, this is most likely just a figure of speech, as the absent pole is probably at an inferior level. That is to say; its magnetism will end directly in the global aether, without detection by current technology.

Matter would be predominant in some regions of outer space, and antimatter in others.



1.d.2. Effect of gravitational lensing without apparent mass

Dark matter ring Cumulus of galaxies C1 0024+17
(Public domain image)
NASA-Dark matter ring

The book Physics and Global Dynamics analyzes gravitational lensing provoked by large masses. Gravitational potential energy produces curvature of light and Merlin effect doubles the effect of Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation for both kinetic and electromagnetic energy.

Given the mass required to produce this effect is not visible, there are various opinions regarding whether it is antimatter or normal matter. The gravitational field is independent of right-handed or left-handed nature of mass; thus, the same curvature of light would appear in both cases.

When there is not enough mass or we do not detect it, dark matter provides an additional explanation for effects of gravitational interaction on the trajectory of light.

Other explanations could be the existence of many black holes or weird particles with mass, like WIMPS.

However, we consider these options are very unlikely, due to the spatial distribution they should have.


"Micro black holes are harmless – LHC

One of those supersymmetric particles has a special theoretical attraction because it is the best theoretical candidate to constitute the mysterious dark matter of the Universe.

El País 11-09-2008

Now, let us see the most likely cause of this strange phenomenon from Global Physics.

  • Global Astrophysics and gravitational lensing without mass

    Of course, if we are going to speculate, the most probable cause for gravitational lensing could be simply the result of variations in the longitudinal tension of the global aether, variations in its spatial configuration at a large scale, or even phenomena of drag of light due to displacements of luminiferous aether –gravitational field.

    Surely luminiferous aether is not only gravity field –tension of longitudinal curvature of the global aether– but also the longitudinal tension itself.

    Intergalactic dark energy will have a non-uniform distribution due to the mechanisms discussed in the previous subsection 1.c.2.b) Dark Energy in Global Physics.

    Following those mechanisms, dark energy will appear in regions where there is a large concentration of stars, in other words, in the galaxies.

    In addition to said non-uniformity. Other curious effects will take place in intergalactic space due to the existence of black holes in the galaxies and to a different distribution of its stars.

    Let us assume a region of three-dimensional space surrounded by 20 more or less distant galaxies. All these galaxies will produce an expansion of the global aether; thus, the longitudinal tension of the filaments of global aether will be smaller in this region, until the galaxies separate due to the tendency said tension has towards equilibrium.

    These adjustment processes will happen throughout every section of the local Universe, resulting in its expansion. However, along the whole process will be irregularities in the longitudinal tension of the filaments, and these will affect gravity, intergalactic electromagnetic fields, and gravitational lensing.

    The irregularities will occur at different scales, not only in intergalactic space but also in clusters of galaxies and superstructures of clusters.

    Another speculative aspect would be that the existence of barred galaxies might be a sign of the different longitudinal stress of the global aether –or space-time with mechanical properties– in large scales.



1.d.3. Rotation of galaxies

According to Modern Physics, the presence of mass not directly detected could also provoke a similar velocity of the stars in galaxies. Thus, the name of this mass is dark matter.

There has also been an attempt to explain the abovementioned natural phenomenon of the rotation of galaxies alternatively, with a minimum intensity of the gravitational field.

Global Astrophysics proposes a possible solution to explain observations within its physical model, based on contraction or expansion of the global aether –or the less intuitive concept of space with mechanical properties.

Theories related to the rotation of the galaxies are:

  • Minimum gravity

    MOND –Modified Newtonian Dynamics– is a proposal of modified gravity called, put forward by Mordehai Milgrom in 1981 as a modification of Newton’s Second Law or Fundamental Law of Dynamics –Wikipedia.

    The most important criticism made to this proposal of modified gravity or MOND is to be an ad hoc theory.

    Another noteworthy criticism is to be a mathematical modification of Newton’s Second Law without providing a physical justification for it.



  • Dark matter and rotation of galaxies

    In theory, without the gravitational minimum, the only existence of a large quantity of dark matter would maintain the velocity of the stars in spiral galaxies. According to Wikipedia, dark matter comprises up to 90% of the total matter in most galaxies.

    It seems that, in addition to a substantial amount of dark matter, there must be a strange distribution to achieve a similar speed of the stars.

    Linear velocity of stars in galaxies
    Linear velocity of stars in galaxies

    When physicists say NASA or the Dark Energy Survey confirm the existence of dark matter as a halo in galaxies, what it means –or they should say to the public– is measurements obtained of the linear velocity of the stars would require the existence of dark matter to be coherent with the current gravitational model. Of course, this is all assuming it is, in fact, a gravitational effect of dark matter.

    In other words, what they confirm is the correction of measurements of linear velocity that they have made –not the hypothesis of dark matter. Although we must understand, the term dark matter itself means it could be anything.

    The velocity of stars close to the center of a galaxy increases as their distance to the center increases because their classical gravitational displacement depends on the mass of all the astronomical objects, not just the central black ball. Once this effect disappears, the velocity should decrease once again.

  • Global Astrophysics and rotation of galaxies

    According to the mechanisms seen in the previous subsection 1.c.2.b) Dark Energy in Global Physics, there is a natural explanation about the similar linear velocity of stars of galaxies.

    • Simple example

      Let us consider the simple experiment of a balloon inflating, like when explaining the expansion of the Universe. If, instead of drawing dots on the exterior of the balloon, we were to imagine an elastic bar in the radius from the center to the exterior, and we were to draw dots on this bar; when the balloon was inflated dots would also get further and further away from each other.

    Global Astrophysics incorporates effects of expansion and contraction of the global aether. Its combination with classical gravitational effects could get us closer to a physical explanation for velocity of stars in galaxies.

    An implicit element in concepts of contraction and expansion of the Universe in Global Mechanics is a drag of mass to a certain extent by the global aether –inverse movement in the book Physics and Global Dynamics. One must consider a train drags a passenger with it, but this does not mean the passenger cannot move within the train.

    Let us remember that Global aether is not the gravitational field; one thing is the three-dimensional material structure of global aether, and other is the tension of its longitudinal curvature. This tension –or gravitational field– can move without a global aether displacement; other times, the opposite can also occur. For example, the expansion of the universe will not affect the relativistic Doppler effect of light by the speed of the stars, and the cosmological shift is not sufficiently clear either.

    One must also not forget that, because electromagnetic energy moves on the tension of longitudinal curvature of the global aether –by Global Mechanics–, relativistic interpretation of information we receive can have fascinating effects upon the supposedly observed reality.

    Another way of presenting the proposal of Global Astrophysics is using a simple sequence of images.

    • Heyelogic telescope

      In the first column, one can see a galaxy with stars very close to its center. In the second, expansion of outer space provoked by the stars has made the galaxy increase in size. Finally, in the third column, space occupied by the galaxy is much more extensive.

      This sequence of images shows how the expansion of the Universe is cumulative for the stars that are far away from the center of the galaxy. At the same time, its linear velocity will maintain and, therefore, will be greater than it would have in a stable orbit corresponding to its new radius according to the model of gravitational effects.

      The figure also shows how the closest star causes a smaller the expansion than the rest, due to contraction of the Universe that probably occurs in the surrounding area of the center of the galaxy. The smaller expansion is not only due to the supermassive black hole that almost certainly exists, but also due to multiple black holes that will exist and the little accumulative effect of the stars.

      Rotation of galaxies Expansion of global aether
      Drawing of stars and expansion of global aether to explain expansion of the universe

    Perhaps the comparison between those galaxies with the phenomenon above of faraway stars and those in which it is not present, or it appears with less intensity could shine some light on dark matter topic. If proposal put forth by Global Astrophysics is correct, those galaxies in which the phenomenon does not occur should be smaller contain many black holes or fewer stars.

    Supposed expansion of the Universe provoked by the Sun does not “push” the Earth away; as is to be expected, the effect is minimal. Perhaps it would be larger if the bubbles in the figure represented billions of stars in a particular galaxy and billions of years.

    We must take into account that the expansion of the universe is 70 km/s Mpc according to the detection of gravitational waves from neutron stars merger by LIGO experiment.

    The inverse movement previously mentioned would imply that the mass has a drag effect on the expansion of the global aether as a function of the quadratic relation of its velocity concerning velocity of light. On the contrary, according to Global Physics, gravitational field –luminiferous aether or tension of the longitudinal curvature of global aether– has a full drag effect on light.

    The conclusion of Global Astrophysics is that expansion of the global aether causes the speed of the stars in the galaxies to be the one corresponding to their initial stable orbit and higher than the speed of the orbit of their current situation if we only take into account the gravitational effects.

    As a result, the stars are in an unstable orbit and they will never return to a stable orbit.

    With this mechanism, dark matter is not necessary to clarify rotation of the galaxies, as it was it not necessary to elucidate gravitational lensing without mass. Furthermore, it is the same mechanism used to illuminate the so-called expansion of the Universe or, properly said, expansion of the global aether.

    Also, let us remark that this mechanism is implicit in the concept of mass contributed by Global Physics; and used both in his new atom theory in Global Mechanics and in the development of its motion theory in Global Dynamics.

    On the other hand, this theory also configures a theory of the origin of the stars, since all of them would have been born in their initial orbits.

    There is experimental verification of expansion within galaxies. The Wikipedia article on the Milky Way indicates, "The Near 3 kpc Arm (also called Expanding 3 kpc Arm or simply 3 kpc Arm) was discovered in the 1950s ... It was found to be expanding from the central bulge at more than 50 km / s."

    Among the main consequences we can highlight:

    • Similar velocities mean that they were born in at a similar distance zones from the center for each galaxy.

    • It explains the existence and formation of the spiral galaxy arms.

    • There will be a relationship between the arms and the age of the stars. In Wikipedia "In December 2013, astronomers found that the distribution of young stars and star-forming regions matches the four-arm spiral description of the Milky Way. Thus, the Milky Way appears to have two spiral arms as traced by old stars and four spiral arms as traced by gas and young stars. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy is unclear."

    • The existence of arms in the spiral galaxies implies periods of intense star formation.

    • The different periods of star formation seem to indicate that mass creates in the initial zone, which could indicate the presence of large electromagnetic fields.

      "The center of the Milky Way is a special place," notes Jay Lockman, an astronomer at the Green Bank Observatory in West Virginia. "At its heart is a black hole several million times more massive than the Sun and there are regions of intense star birth and explosive star destruction."

      The same argument, but used inversely, could be used for the drastic fall of stars starting at 40000 light years from the radius of the Milky Way.

    We have performed a mathematical analysis for the Milky Way with very satisfactory results, although we must take into account the large margin of error existing for various reasons in some of the data used.

    The calculated expansion is 2.50169E + 20 m, which is almost 50% the radius of the Milky Way, which is 4.72713E + 20 m. Obviously; we pick some figures to achieve such a nice result, but always within reasonable limits.

    Nevertheless, we would like to remark that the expansion obtained is more conservative than the 50 m / s mentioned in the cited Wikipedia article of experimental observations. This high figure seems to confirm the ideas of inverse movement, the acceleration on it that produces the constant expansion of the universe and the unstable orbits.

    The calculations are the following:

    Expansion in the Milky Way
    a. Typical speed of the stars 2,20000E+05 m/s  
    b. Velocity over global aether * 8,80000E+05 m/s  
    c. Light speed 2,99792E+08 m/s  
    d. 1 million years 3,15360E+13 s  
    e. Average exp. of the universe per Mpc 7,08205E+04 m/s  
    f. 1 million years exp. of the universe 2,23340E+18 m d*e
        Expansion adjustments    
         g. Mpc applied to la MW * 5  
         h. Mpc local  group applied to MW * 2  
         i. Mpc star position in MW * 5  
         j. Age stars MW 13000 My  
    k. Expansion. adjusted 1,45171E+24 m f*g*h*i*j
        Inverse movement adjustments    
         l. Drag acceleration * 10  
         m. Drag * 8,61636E-05 m l*b*b/c*c
    n. Exp. with drag effect 1,25084E+20 m k*m
    o. Exp. with unstable orbits in MW 2,50169E+20 m n*2
    p. Radio of MW 4,72713E+20 m  

    * These elements are included in accordance with the explanations of the Global Physics. The expansion adjustments by the application of the average expansion to the stars of the Milky Way and the adjustments by inverse movement due to the effect of the expansion of the universe on the movement of the stars over the global ether.

    This presentation is very general and renormalizable. Anything, but stretching space, shrinking time, or shoving things into other dimensions.