4.d) Evolutionism and mechanisms of genetic variability
It is suitable to clarify some similar terms that sometimes have specific connotations, such as procedure, methods, processes, and evolution mechanisms.
4.d.1. Concepts on evolutionary genetics
Procedures and methods of evolutionary genetics
These two concepts are almost the same. For example, sexual differentiation, Logical Verification of Information, and natural selection characterize processes, methods, and even evolutionary genetics mechanisms.
Usually, procedures and methods have a conceptual or immaterial character.
A set of activities with a shared goal
Mechanism of genetic variations
A mechanism of genetic alterations would be a singular activity that has an immediate purpose.
A basic outline could be as follows: A procedure that includes one or various methods, consisting of a group of activities or processes formed by an undetermined number of related mechanisms, generally in a sequential way.
Likewise, nothing prevents various independent procedures or processes from acting simultaneously. There is an evolution mechanism, which works a posteriori in many cases, so-called Natural Selection, collaborating with the other functions and methods.
4.d.2. Glossary about processes of genetic variability
The mechanisms explain evolutionism according to the scientific method. Natural selection is not the only process.
Among the most relevant are the following:
Procedures and methods
Trial and error
The most straightforward process is typical of microorganisms, which have many descendants in each generation and rely on natural selection.
From a tautology perspective, it would act as a single, effective evolutionary method, as random modifications alone would not achieve the evolution seen in living beings.
However, in accepting the changes' arbitrary character, the method of trial and error would be more general than natural selection since this does not always operate. It does not seem to have much relevance in human beings, except in the very long term. Nor is it guaranteed that it will act in the future.
Natural selection is a system’s exogenous verification method to produce genetic modifications because it works a posteriori.
Exhaustive check of gene expression
It would be the verification of the results foreseen by the transmitted genetic modifications. In some instances, living organisms can verify the effect of replacing one protein with another. If this verification is satisfactory regarding the functionality, and there is no risk of side effects, the deletion of the information generating the first protein would be possible since it would not affect the assurance objective.
Partial check of the modifications
When a system grows and contains innumerous interrelations, an exhaustive check of all the effects caused by a small change will not be possible.
The genetic modification will carry a lesser risk the more prominent the covered range. Informatics programmers know these types of threats.
Primary or endogenic sexual differentiation
Due to the development of more complex beings, the partial verification method's risk increases and will not guarantee the offspring's viability.
The search for new methods to explain evolutionism satisfactorily is required. One possible approach could be sexual differentiation, in such a way that one of the sexes could spend all its energy in developing and verifying new functions. It could be the case of the evolution of bees since there is a sexual differentiation but an endogamy pairing.
It could also be about keeping an intact copy while the other one has genetic modifications.
The main advantages are in detail in the chapter about the objectives of evolution.
External Logical Verification of Information (LoVeInf)
A detailed explanation appears while talking about dominant and recessive genes in the example relating to the “Significance and expression of genetic variations: the example of the technological development of brakes in the automobile industry.”
Before the genetic modification, the code can be kept to a greater or lesser degree to have the possibility of returning to the initial configuration. Another advantage of keeping the old code is using it for different functions, equivalent to having a program or function library.
Creation and design of genetic modifications –genetic research at the cell level
Initial development of the new living being
The growth of the living being
Choice of the partner or sexual selection
Execution of pre-established structures –epigenetics
The results of some actions can vary depending on the conditions.
A typical example could be the decision-making process of the brain.
Mechanisms of genetic variations
Operational conditions of the genetic information
Creation of random operations
A particular activity of the decision-making process
Feedback - It would always be possible to associate a genetic modification with its age or effectiveness during some generations.