2.b) The Big Bang Theory and Inflation

The Big Bang Theory proposes the Universe resulted from an initial explosion, which is a generally accepted theory; though of course, it is not the same as proven. In any case, as there are no further details about before the supposed initial explosion or Big Bang, it configures another singularity; in other words, the origin is unknown.

Following the detection of gravitational waves -GW171017- generated by the merger of two neutron stars, more doubts about the Big Bang arise.

Big Bang stages (CC0 Creative Commons)
Stages according to the Big Bang theory and inflation of the universe.

If we calculate the time corresponding to the observable universe taking into account the average expansion universe of 70 km/s for each megaparsec –Mpc– we will have:

300,000 (km/s) * 3.26 (million years/Mpc) / 70 ((km/s)/Mpc) =
= 13.971 million years

Meaning the age of the universe according to the Big Bang theory is similar to the time associated with the observable universe.

Regarding the cosmic microwave background –CMB– support to the Big Bang theory, we wonder if the initial explosion could give birth to a more prominent universe than the observable and if the CMB would be different in that case.

We imagine the CMB would be the same bearing in mind the limits the observable universe implies. Therefore, the CMB only informs about the observable universe and not about the origin of the universe or the Big Bang.

In a strict sense, both the Big Bang Theory and the Theory of Parallel Universes are not admissible from an epistemological point of view; as from nothing, nothing can emerge, and two parallel straight lines will never come together unless the fat dot theorem is applied.

In the previous section on the origin of the Universe, we presented a rational criticism of the Big Bang Theory.

The doubts get prominent by the recent observation of mature galaxies to 12,000 million light years.

Whether or not the Big Bang Theory is correct, giant explosions occur naturally in the Universe, such as those originated by supernovas; many massive implosions also happen, such as the so-called black holes or big black balls, though they are not as fast as the former.

In the book Global Mechanics, we discussed the structure of the global or gravitational aether, which supports gravity.

The Principle of Global Conservation proposes a mechanism or relationship between gravity and mass, as different states the global aether –quantum foam, strings or space-time with mechanical properties– to explain big black balls. The various manifestations of energy are only properties of the global aether in these different states.

In turn, it expresses the existence of the inverse phenomenon of black holes, which could be white sources or stars. It could help us to understand the expansion of the universe, dark energy, and the non-existence of dark matter.

PHYSICS NEWS

The Big Bang is similar to a black hole – only the other way around.

In a particular sense, the singularity in the interior of a black hole is like the singularity at the origin of the Universe, but with time inverted: in the Big Bang, everything emerges from the singularity, while a black hole absorbs everything. It is somewhat like reversing the time of the singularity.

El País 23-03-2011, Kip Thorne

Faced with the Big Bang Theory is the Steady State Theory. According to the theory of everything of Global Physics, after its development by both Global Mechanics and Global Dynamics and the new measurements of the expansion of the universe, Small Bangs in an infinite universe would be possible, which could be smaller or much larger than the observable universe.

From the perspective of an infinite Universe, the Steady State Theory would be admissible without imposing conditions of homogeneity and without the concepts of relativistic space and time. That is to say; it only would remain the idea that the entire Universe does not appear or disappear; it merely remains in a dynamic equilibrium on a large scale.

The new vision of Global Cosmology provides potential explanations for both the energy source of the possible Small Bangs and the Theory of Cosmic Inflation applied to them.

  • Small Bang.

    Surely, by using just a little bit of imagination, we could think of many possible causes of a Small Bang,  related to black holes, such as:

    • The collision of supermassive black holes

      The two supermassive black holes should have different spatial configuration right-handed and left-handed nature.

      Taking into account gravitational elongation –opposite to creation of loops or curls–, if a black hole and an anti-black hole were to collide, one right wing and the other left wing in nature, in this unlikely and hypothetical scenario would be an explosion of both and a consequent expansion of the local Universe.

    • Physical limit of a big black ball

      Another idea could be that a black hole could get to be so massive that it would reach a physical threshold relative to the folding in the filaments of Global Aether that form the mass. Specifically, the gravity would be so immense that the loops that form the atoms and elementary particles would suddenly become undone.

      One must remember that, according to Global Mechanics, the mass of a proton or a neutron is like a slipknot, and is stable in the reticular structure of matter or Global Aether.

      • Simple Physics experiment

        Typically, a stable knot of strings is one where, when attempting to undo it by pulling strings, the knot gets tighter.

        However, logic dictates that if one were to pull hard enough, it is possible that the knot would become undone, as long as the strings do not break.

  • Inflation of the Universe

    In both explosions of two big black balls or a physical limit of the mass, reversion of compressed mass would provoke an enormous expansion of the Global Aether. If the size of the big black balls involved were sufficiently large, this expansion could explain the period known as cosmic inflation.

    However, even if they were not so big, the period of cosmic inflation in the Universe could also happen if the size was large enough to provoke a substantial decrease in longitudinal tension of the Global Aether and, consequently, the undoing of the knots that form the mass of nearby galaxies.

    • Physics example

      A knot of strings can become undone easily if its internal tension is relaxed.

    On the other hand, the fact that the speed of light is constant and maximum in its natural reference frame is not contradictory with the expansion of Global Aether.

    Thus, electromagnetic waves traveling upon luminiferous aether –and this one dragged by the longitudinal tension of the Global Aether– will have velocities much higher than *c* in the universe.

    The first estimation of this velocity, which could somewhat fit with the extreme distances we are referring to, could be that of *c²*. It is, after all, the relation between electromagnetic energy and mass, and we are precisely talking about changes between these two states of aggregation of matter.

To conclude this book on the life of the Universe, we would like to thank all the collaborators of Wikipedia for their work and efforts to contribute to Modern Science because they are more objective than technical papers.

Finally, we have just realized something; according to Global Mechanics, when we move, we do not only abandon the space we were occupying, but also the reticular structure of matter which we were modulating with our energy. We do not know why, but this is beginning to remind us of the Equation of Love.

 

 

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 When Einsotro finished his masterpiece Global Astrophysics,
as a celebration he told Mª José:

–I’m inviting you to come to my house for dinner,
I will prepare my culinary specialty:
Dorada al Tinto, Tintorro

So Mª José answered:

–Why don’t you invite Don Magufo and Goblin as well?–

Einsotro, who expected anything from her, answered:

What a witch you are!