1.b) Theory of black holes and contraction of the Universe

It is recommendable to read the book on Global Mechanics to understand the proposals for Astrophysics and the theory of black holes –big black balls–; in particular, section referring to subatomic particles and the mechanisms for the creation of mass.

Global Mechanics has named the phenomenon of creation and formation of physical mass black interaction, as it is a different –albeit related– phenomenon to gravitational and electromagnetic interactions. The inverse phenomenon to black interaction would be white interaction, conversion of mass into electromagnetic energy and relaxation of the longitudinal tension of the Global Aether. An example would be a star breaking up in a nuclear fusion reaction. Indeed, it is the interaction of mass in its two manifestations of creation and destruction or transformation.

However, we must bear in mind that, even if this subject ceases to be relative, it will still be speculative. This section of Global Physics on Astrophysics aims solely to note some general ideas, without going into detail.

We have decided to change the name of black holes for big black balls gradually because, according to Global Physics, these astronomical objects have nothing to do with a hole and appear to be like a giant ball.

It is not about change for the sake of change; it is about aiding the brain in using intuitive thought processes and logic when it comes to complex topics such as these, due to the lack of experimental information available, and physical theories of a purely mathematical nature. Also, it serves to situate the brain within the new paradigm of Global Physics.

Given the change of perspective on space and the Universe, it is convenient to present the most relevant concepts of the new theory of black holes separately. Thus, we shall divide this part of the book into the following subsections: concept, formation, types and core effects of black balls.



1.b.1. What is a black hole or big black ball?

Although recently one does not hear so much about wormholes or holes in space-time (strings, quantum foam, aether or any other name), we must recognize that concept of a black hole has been a hole in itself, where theories of all kinds seemed to fit.

The exotic phenomenon known as a wormhole connects two parts of the Universe –also known as Einstein-Rosen bridge across space-time– with a gravitational tunnel through which mass and energy absorbed by a black hole could pass. A wormhole does not seem reasonable given the gravitational effects of the big black balls and characteristics of the Global Aether. Global Astrophysics is a non-relativistic Astrophysics.

The idea of wormholes that connect two different or parallel Universes is perhaps best not to comment on –at least, from a scientific point of view.

Another quite nice way of defining black holes or big black balls is to say that they consist of atoms and particles in a state of plasma. However, according to Wikipedia, interstellar space contains plasma, the interior of stars is also plasma, and we have plasma ornaments with pretty lighting effects; so, we have concluded that it is perhaps best not to mention plasmodium too much, so as not to confuse people more than necessary. At least not in a book like this, which does not aim to possess a detailed technical precision.

It is not our intention to criticize Wikipedia; it seems that plasma refers to a phase of matter –different from solid, liquid or gas– characterized by its composition of ions or charged particles moving freely.

We believe the big black balls and the stars are somewhat more complicated than plasma; in fact, we would say anything but free, which is not saying plasma is easy to describe in its various manifestations.

Global Physics talks about primary phases of the reticular structure of matter or Global Aether, such as total symmetry, radial symmetry –or gravity–, transversal symmetry –or electromagnetism–, and compressed matter –or mass.

The most straightforward intuitive idea of a big black ball is an astronomical object composed of compressed reticular matter or mass, which generates sufficient gravity avoiding electromagnetic energy to escape; as such, it appears black from the outside. Thus, it is not only capable of capturing electromagnetic energy passing through its area of influence, but also does not allow electromagnetic energy produced in its interior to escape.

Black holes are like huge balls made up of little balls in development; they absorb the mass and electromagnetic radiation that reaches them via the creation of loops and curls in their interior due to the forces of torsion that act on them. The formation of these loops neutralizes the tension of transversal elasticity, as it transforms it into the tension of longitudinal curvature and energy of reversible deformation due to the compression of Global Aether.

The concept of the big black ball will be more natural after reading about its formation process and some of its most essential characteristics.

We must take into account that at the end of last century, scientists use to say it was possible a black hole could exist in each galaxy. Now, they talk of millions of big black balls in massive galaxies.



1.b.2. Formation of black holes

This process has various stages, and not all of them are necessary. It is possible that in the enormous initial explosion of our local Universe –the Big Bang– large masses formed in a short time, capable of provoking reactions of nuclear fusion leading to the birth of stars or directly a black hole.

The general idea would be the creation of cosmic dust in the first place, –by gravitational effects– that would give rise to planets and stars. These stars, according to their typology, could then have various ends, depending on dominating forces within them; for example, the force of gravity or nuclear fusion.

In Modern Astrophysics, there are various theories regarding the origin of planets – all of them with a certain level of speculation involved. It is almost sure that in outer space there exist planetary systems with different formation processes.

According to Wikipedia, the most widely accepted theory, and the one that would explain the majority of planetary systems is that of cosmic dust before and after the birth of stars and post accretion disk.

The theory of the origin of planets describes the way in which the accretion disks of cosmic dust begin and evolve but does not adequately explain the formation of the cosmic dust itself.

Up until now, it seems scientists thought gravitational processes were more relevant in the formation of stars than electromagnetic processes. However, recently there are studies about galactic and intergalactic electromagnetic field maps.

Black hole jet (Public domain image)
A galaxy with a black hole jet - NASA

The grand unification of Global Mechanics of gravitational interaction with electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions allows the understanding formation of planets and cosmic dust within a more general perspective.

Global Astrophysics does not deny gravitational processes, but it also gives significance to electromagnetic fields; by the processes explained in the section on Elementary particles and constitution of the mass of book Global Mechanics.

The same argument for the creation of the mass of subatomic particles, such as protons and neutrons or peculiarities of the electrons, could explain the birth of cosmic dust in vast regions of space, regardless of whether stars eject cosmic dust in supernova-like explosions or when two big black balls collide and join.

While both gravitational and electromagnetic interactions aid growth of black holes, in stars such as the Sun, these two interactions have opposite effects concerning growth of the star.

Gravity attracts mass towards the star, but the electromagnetic force released by the star implies a loss of mass due to nuclear fusion reactions.

To summarize, there may exist different processes that give rise to the formation of a black hole, such as a neutron star, or collision of two big black balls. However, we may divide a typical process into the following stages:


  • Existence and creation of cosmic dust

    In the first stage, cosmic dust will exist in a particular area of space due to previous explosions of stars, the Big Bang itself, or due to its creation by the high concentration of electromagnetic energy.

  • Formation of large masses

    In the second phase, small groups of cosmic dust will start to form due to gravitational effects; this will give rise to the origin of asteroids and large concentrations of mass.

    In this stage, the accretion disks, planets and stars will appear.

  • Gravitational attraction of light

    The third stage would be the fact that the large masses will be so big and concentrated that they can trap electromagnetic energy due to the high associated potential energy. This gravitational effect will not only be due to classical gravitational effects but also to the Merlin effect –a mechanism that makes gravity force double on electromagnetic and kinetic energy–; explained in the books Global Mechanics, Physics and Global Dynamics and Law of Global Gravity.

    This effect explains the curvature of light –or gravitational lens effect– and the anomalous precession of the orbit of Mercury.

    As was mentioned above, to be genuinely black the balls must not only trap electromagnetic energy but also must not allow energy produced in their interior to escape.



1.b.3. Characteristics of big black balls

Until confirmation of certain hypotheses concerning the structure of the Universe, this branch of Science will continue to be very speculative. Everything is possible in Nature, with perhaps a few exceptions, like forces at a distance, pure telepathy, additional spatial dimensions, multiple realities depending on the observer and time-travel.

The only thing that these anti-intuitive concepts achieve is to hinder scientific development unless we understand them as mere temporary tricks of science until we discover the actual underlying physical reality. We would say such epistemological impossibilities constitute a grand theory anti-everything.

In any case, we would like to remind the reader that Global Physics –while not quite at the extreme level of Modern Physics– is a very bold theory, particularly when it comes to Global Astrophysics.

  • Mass and size of big black holes

    By the concept of the big black ball itself, the minimum mass should achieve a sufficient global gravitational attraction not to allow electromagnetic energy to escape.

    The big black balls in the center of galaxies will be massive or supermassive balls, on occasion billions of times the mass of the Sun, as they will capture more stars and trap electromagnetic energy of many more stars than in other areas of space.

  • Rotation of big black balls

    It seems Astronomy has detected rotating black holes. This rotation could be a consequence –as well as of rotation and collisions of the stars which originated them– of the transversal nature of electromagnetic energy.

    • Simple Physics experiment

      Hold an elastic band by its ends and twist it in opposite directions until little ball forms in the center.

      Keep twisting to the ends and see what happens!

  • Composition and internal structure

    Supermassive black holes could be a collection of fundamental particles because high gravitational energy could split the nuclei of the heavier atoms.

    It is also possible that high gravitational energy provokes rigid structures of nucleons, and that these structures behave as giant particles. Repeating this process, enormous folds of Global Aether could appear in the interior of supermassive black holes, due to the capture of considerable amounts of electromagnetic energy.

    • Simple Physics experiment

      We can visualize these giant structures if we think of a three-dimensional elastic net with small marbles in its reticules; we grab a few of these with our hand and twist our fist.

  • Big black balls and anti-big-black-balls

    Like fundamental subatomic particles, there could exist two types of black holes: right-handed and left-handed. Although gravitational attraction will always exist, from the perspective of the supported magnetic field, two corresponding black holes should repel each other and two different ones should attract; it seems to be the age-old story. The only thing remaining would be if sexuality were a right-handed to left-handed attraction, like political dynamics.

    It is convenient to point out that an anti-black-hole would not be a star or white fountain, but similar to the terminological relation between matter and antimatter. The opposite phenomenon to the creation of mass –black hole– is the destruction of mass –white fountain or star–, and this is not the same as the creation of a mass of a right-handed or left-handed nature.

    In other words, the right-handed or left-handed nature of mass or electromagnetic energy will relate to the concepts of matter and antimatter. If a black ball is right-handed, its anti-black-ball will be a left-handed black ball.



1.b.4. Effects of big black balls

  • Gravitational attraction on mass and energy

    This effect comes literally from its definition or concept.

  • Emission of mass and electromagnetic energy

    We know that some black holes emit significant quantities of matter in short periods.

  • Contraction of the Universe

    The phenomenon known as the contraction of the Universe occurs in the area of influence of each black hole from the first stage of creation of cosmic dust, just as it happens on a small scale in atoms with the formation of electrons.

    The contraction of the Universe will be a direct consequence of the theory of black balls as particles with mass and the creation of loops or curls with the absorption of electromagnetic radiation and compression and compaction of the Global Aether.

    The contraction of the Universe will be a similar phenomenon to that of a displacement in a three-dimensional spider’s web when one tug towards the middle and a central ball creates –with the material of the strands– containing many little balls.

    In the new theory, black holes produce the contraction of the Global Aether or reticular structure of matter. Other physical theories might call these phenomena contraction of space; they understand space –erroneously in our opinion– like the mathematical points corresponding to Global Aether in Global Mechanics. Thus, if the Global Aether compresses, there will be a contraction of the Universe due to contraction of space according to these theories.

    The stars or white fountains will produce the opposite phenomenon –or expansion of the Universe– with the emission of electromagnetic energy, consequence of the white interaction or decompression of the reticular matter in the nuclear reactions. Therefore, we could say the named dark energy in the visible Universe is white energy.

  • Collision of big black balls

    Fusion of two big black balls appears to be a natural phenomenon, now that millions of black holes can exist in a single galaxy.

    An interesting topic would be the fusion between two big black balls, one right-handed and the other left-handed.

    Nevertheless, it would be difficult for two black holes of a different spatial nature to exist close to one another, as the forces that could create them would compensate and said black holes would not be able to form. Of course, once they create, they could get closer.